JEE Main is the country’s largest engineering entrance exam.The offline exam dates released by the CBSE i.e. on 08 April 2018. It is the only portal for aspirants to get into the reputed IITs, NITs and a number of good government colleges. Every year more than 10 lakh students apply for the exam out of which only 2.4 lac move forward to JEE Advanced. In this article you will get all the information about JEE Main Chemistry Syllabus.
It is common knowledge that not many of you are big fans of Chemistry. But this should not stop you from getting a decent score. Chemistry is one of those subjects which can be studied selectively and yet you can aim for a 100% result. This is mainly because most of the concepts revolve around bond formation/ breaking and the periodic table. If your fundamentals in these topics are rock solid then preparing for JEE Main becomes easy.
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Find detailed JEE Main Chemistry Syllabus from here:
Section A: Physical Chemistry
UNIT 1: Some Basic concepts in Chemistry
Matter and its nature, Dalton’s atomic theory; Concept of atom, molecule, element and compound; Physical quantities and their measurements in Chemistry, precision and accuracy, significant figures, S.I. Units, dimensional analysis; Laws of chemical combination; Atomic and molecular masses, mole concept, molar mass, percentage composition, empirical and molecular formulae; Chemical equations and stoichiometry.
UNIT 2: States of Matter
Classification of matter into solid, liquid and gaseous states.
Measurable properties of gases; Gas laws – Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Graham’s law of diffusion, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure; Concept of Absolute scale of temperature; Ideal gas equation, Kinetic theory of gases (only postulates); Concept of average, root mean square and most probable velocities; Real gases, deviation from Ideal behaviour, compressibility factor, van der Waals equation, liquefaction of gases, critical constants.
Properties of liquids – vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension and effect of temperature on them (qualitative treatment only).
Classification of solids: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea); Bragg’s Law and its applications; Unit cell and lattices, packing in solids (fcc, bcc and hcp lattices), voids, calculations involving unit cell parameters, imperfection in solids; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties.
UNIT 3: Atomic Structure
Discovery of sub-atomic particles (electron, proton and neutron); Thomson and Rutherford atomic models and their limitations; Nature of electromagnetic radiation, photoelectric effect; Spectrum of hydrogen atom, Bohr model of hydrogen atom – its postulates, derivation of the relations for energy of the electron and radii of the different orbits, limitations of Bohr’s model; Dual nature of matter, de-Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
Elementary ideas of quantum mechanics, quantum mechanical model of atom, its important features, concept of atomic orbitals as one electron wave functions; Variation of Ψ and Ψ2 with r for 1s and 2s orbitals; various quantum numbers (principal, angular momentum and magnetic quantum numbers) and their significance; shapes of s, p and d – orbitals, electron spin and spin quantum number; Rules for filling electrons in orbitals – aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of elements, extra stability of half-filled and completely filled orbitals.
UNIT 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Kossel – Lewis approach to chemical bond formation, concept of ionic and covalent bonds.
Ionic Bonding: Formation of ionic bonds, factors affecting the formation of ionic bonds; calculation of lattice enthalpy.
Covalent Bonding: Concept of electronegativity, Fajan’s rule, dipole moment; Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory and shapes of simple molecules.
Quantum mechanical approach to covalent bonding: Valence bond theory – Its important features, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals; Resonance.
Molecular Orbital Theory – Its important features, LCAOs, types of molecular orbitals (bonding, antibonding), sigma and pi-bonds, molecular orbital electronic configurations of homonuclear diatomic molecules, concept of bond order, bond length and bond energy.
Elementary idea of metallic bonding. Hydrogen bonding and its applications.
UNIT 5: Chemical Thermodynamics
Fundamentals of thermodynamics: System and surroundings, extensive and intensive properties, state functions, types of processes.
First law of thermodynamics: Concept of work, heat internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity, molar heat capacity; Hess’s law of constant heat summation; Enthalpies of bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, hydration, ionization and solution.
Second law of thermodynamics: Spontaneity of processes; ΔS of the universe and ΔG of the system as criteria for spontaneity, ΔGo (Standard Gibbs energy change) and equilibrium constant.
UNIT 6: Solutions
Different methods for expressing concentration of solution – molality, molarity, mole fraction, percentage (by volume and mass both), vapour pressure of solutions and Raoult’s Law – Ideal and non-ideal solutions, vapour pressure – composition, plots for ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties of dilute solutions – relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression of freezing point, elevation of boiling point and osmotic pressure; Determination of molecular mass using colligative properties; Abnormal value of molar mass, van’t Hoff factor and its significance.
UNIT 7: Equilibrium
Meaning of equilibrium, concept of dynamic equilibrium.
Equilibria involving physical processes: Solid -liquid, liquid – gas and solid – gas equilibria, Henry’s law, general characterics of equilibrium involving physical processes.
Equilibria involving chemical processes: Law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constants (Kp and Kc) and their significance, significance of ΔG and ΔGo in chemical equilibria, factors affecting equilibrium concentration, pressure, temperature, effect of catalyst; Le Chatelier’s principle.
Ionic equilibrium: Weak and strong electrolytes, ionization of electrolytes, various concepts of acids and bases (Arrhenius, Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis) and their ionization, acid – base equilibria (including multistage ionization) and ionization constants, ionization of water, pH scale, common ion effect, hydrolysis of salts and pH of their solutions, solubility of sparingly soluble salts and solubility products, buffer solutions.
UNIT 8: Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry
Electronic concepts of oxidation and reduction, redox reactions, oxidation number, rules for assigning oxidation number, balancing of redox reactions.
Eectrolytic and metallic conduction, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivities and their variation with concentration: Kohlrausch’s law and its applications.
Electrochemical cells – Electrolytic and Galvanic cells, different types of electrodes, electrode potentials including standard electrode potential, half – cell and cell reactions, emf of a Galvanic cell and its measurement; Nernst equation and its applications; Relationship between cell potential and Gibbs’ energy change; Dry cell and lead accumulator; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
UNIT 9: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a chemical reaction, factors affecting the rate of reactions: concentration, temperature, pressure and catalyst; elementary and complex reactions, order and molecularity of reactions, rate law, rate constant and its units, differential and integral forms of zero and first order reactions, their characteristics and half – lives, effect of temperature on rate of reactions – Arrhenius theory, activation energy and its calculation, collision theory of bimolecular gaseous reactions (no derivation).
UNIT 10: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption – Physisorption and chemisorption and their characteristics, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids – Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms, adsorption from solutions.
Catalysis – Homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis and its mechanism.
Colloidal state – distinction among true solutions, colloids and suspensions, classification of colloids – lyophilic, lyophobic; multi molecular, macromolecular and associated colloids (micelles), preparation and properties of colloids – Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, dialysis, coagulation and flocculation; Emulsions and their characteristics.
Section B: Inorganic Chemistry
UNIT 11: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
Modem periodic law and present form of the periodic table, s, p, d and f block elements, periodic trends in properties of elementsatomic and ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, valence, oxidation states and chemical reactivity.
UNIT 12: General Principles and Process of Isolation of Metals
Modes of occurrence of elements in nature, minerals, ores; steps involved in the extraction of metals – concentration, reduction (chemical. and electrolytic methods) and refining with special reference to the extraction of Al, Cu, Zn and Fe; Thermodynamic and electrochemical principles involved in the extraction of metals.
UNIT 13: Hydrogen
Position of hydrogen in periodic table, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; Physical and chemical properties of water and heavy water; Structure, preparation, reactions and uses of hydrogen peroxide; Classification of hydrides – ionic, covalent and interstitial; Hydrogen as a fuel.
UNIT 14: s – Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metals)
Group 1 and Group 2 Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationships.
Preparation and properties of some important compounds – sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate; Industrial uses of lime, limestone, Plaster of Paris and cement; Biological significance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.
UNIT 15: p – Block Elements
Group 13 to Group 18 Elements
General Introduction: Electronic configuration and general trends in physical and chemical properties of elements across the periods and down the groups; unique behaviour of the first element in each group.
Groupwise study of the p – block elements
Group – 13
Preparation, properties and uses of boron and aluminium; Structure, properties and uses of borax, boric acid, diborane, boron trifluoride, aluminium chloride and alums.
Group – 14
Tendency for catenation; Structure, properties and uses of allotropes and oxides of carbon, silicon tetrachloride, silicates, zeolites and silicones.
Group – 15
Properties and uses of nitrogen and phosphorus; Allotrophic forms of phosphorus; Preparation, properties, structure and uses of ammonia, nitric acid, phosphine and phosphorus halides, (PCl3, PCl5); Structures of oxides and oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorus.
Group – 16
Preparation, properties, structures and uses of dioxygen and ozone; Allotropic forms of sulphur; Preparation, properties, structures and uses of sulphur dioxide, sulphuric acid (including its industrial preparation); Structures of oxoacids of sulphur.
Group – 17
Preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid; Trends in the acidic nature of hydrogen halides; Structures of Interhalogen compounds and oxides and oxoacids of halogens.
Group – 18
Occurrence and uses of noble gases; Structures of fluorides and oxides of xenon.
UNIT 16: d – and f – Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics, general trends in properties of the first row transition elements – physical properties, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, atomic radii, colour, catalytic behaviour, magnetic properties, complex formation, interstitial compounds, alloy formation; Preparation, properties and uses of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Inner Transition Elements
Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction.
Actinoids – Electronic configuration and oxidation states.
UNIT 17: Co-ordination Compounds
Introduction to co-ordination compounds, Werner’s theory; ligands, co-ordination number, denticity, chelation; IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear co-ordination compounds, isomerism; Bonding-Valence bond approach and basic ideas of Crystal field theory, colour and magnetic properties; Importance of co-ordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and in biological systems).
UNIT 18: Environmental Chemistry
Environmental pollution – Atmospheric, water and soil.
Atmospheric pollution – Tropospheric and stratospheric
Tropospheric pollutants – Gaseous pollutants: Oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur, hydrocarbons; their sources, harmful effects and prevention; Green house effect and Global warming; Acid rain; Particulate pollutants: Smoke, dust, smog, fumes, mist; their sources, harmful effects and prevention.
Stratospheric pollution – Formation and breakdown of ozone, depletion of ozone layer – its mechanism and effects.
Water Pollution – Major pollutants such as, pathogens, organic wastes and chemical pollutants; their harmful effects and prevention.
Soil pollution – Major pollutants such as: Pesticides (insecticides,. herbicides and fungicides), their harmful effects and prevention.
Strategies to control environmental pollution.
Section-C: Organic Chemistry
UNIT 19: Purification and Characterisation of Organic Compounds
Purification – Crystallization, sublimation, distillation, differential extraction and chromatography – principles and their applications.
Qualitative analysis – Detection of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and halogens.
Quantitative analysis (basic principles only) – Estimation of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, halogens, sulphur, phosphorus.
Calculations of empirical formulae and molecular formulae; Numerical problems in organic quantitative analysis.
UNIT 20: Some Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry
Tetravalency of carbon; Shapes of simple molecules – hybridization (s and p); Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups: – C = C – , – C ? C – and those containing halogens, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur; Homologous series; Isomerism – structural and stereoisomerism.
Nomenclature (Trivial and IUPAC)
Covalent bond fission – Homolytic and heterolytic: free radicals, carbocations and carbanions; stability of carbocations and free radicals, electrophiles and nucleophiles.
Electronic displacement in a covalent bond – Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.
Common types of organic reactions – Substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement.
UNIT 21: Hydrocarbons
Classification, isomerism, IUPAC nomenclature, general methods of preparation, properties and reactions.
Alkanes – Conformations: Sawhorse and Newman projections (of ethane); Mechanism of halogenation of alkanes.
Alkenes – Geometrical isomerism; Mechanism of electrophilic addition: addition of hydrogen, halogens, water, hydrogen halides (Markownikoff’s and peroxide effect); Ozonolysis, oxidation, and polymerization.
Alkynes – Acidic character; Addition of hydrogen, halogens, water and hydrogen halides; Polymerization.
Aromatic hydrocarbons – Nomenclature, benzene – structure and aromaticity; Mechanism of electrophilic substitution: halogenation, nitration, Friedel – Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene.
UNIT 22: Organic Compounds Containing Halogens
General methods of preparation, properties and reactions; Nature of C-X bond; Mechanisms of substitution reactions.
Uses; Environmental effects of chloroform, iodoform, freons and DDT.
UNIT 23: Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols: Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration.
Phenols: Acidic nature, electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation, nitration and sulphonation, Reimer – Tiemann reaction.
Aldehyde and Ketones
Nature of carbonyl group; Nucleophilic addition to >C=O group, relative reactivities of aldehydes and ketones; Important reactions such as – Nucleophilic addition reactions (addition of HCN, NH3 and its derivatives), Grignard reagent; oxidation; reduction (Wolff Kishner and Clemmensen); acidity of ? – hydrogen, aldol condensation, Cannizzaro reaction, Haloform reaction; Chemical tests to distinguish between aldehydes and Ketones.
Carboxylic Acids: Acidic strength and factors affecting it.
UNIT 24: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
General methods of preparation, properties, reactions and uses.
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, basic character and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines and their basic character.
Diazonium Salts: Importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
UNIT 25: Polymers
General introduction and classification of polymers, general methods of polymerization – addition and condensation, copolymerization;
Natural and synthetic rubber and vulcanization; some important polymers with emphasis on their monomers and uses – polythene, nylon, polyester and bakelite.
UNIT 26: Bio Molecules
General introduction and importance of biomolecules.
Carbohydrates – Classification: aldoses and ketoses; monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), constituent monosaccharides of oligosacchorides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen).
Proteins – Elementary Idea of amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides; Proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins, enzymes.
Vitamins – Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids – Chemical constitution of DNA and RNA. Biological functions of nucleic acids.
UNIT 27: Chemistry in Everyday Life
Chemicals in medicines – Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamins – their meaning and common examples.
Chemicals in food – Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents – common examples.
Cleansing agents – Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
UNIT 28: Principles Related to Practical Chemistry
Detection of extra elements (N,S, halogens) in organic compounds; Detection of the following functional groups: hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl and amino groups in organic compounds.
JEE Main 2018 Exam Pattern
JEE Main consists of 2 papers. Engineering aspirants should appear for Paper 1 while Paper 2 is for B Arch/ B Planning students. The exam paper will be available in English and Hindi language. It is also available in regional languages for some states. The duration of both papers is 3 hours.
Paper 1 is divided into 3 sections- Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics. Each section consists of 30 objective questions. +4 marks are awarded for correct answers while 1 mark is deducted for incorrect responses.
Chemistry is divided into 3 parts- Physical, Organic and Inorganic. A greater number of questions are asked from Physical and Inorganic Chemistry. Applicants should follow the right syllabus and study all the 3 components thoroughly.
JEE Main Chemistry Important Chapters:
Chemistry is regarded as the most scoring subject among he three. A good score in this section will enable you to clear the cut off comfortably. Aspirants often neglect this subject because of the numerous formula and reaction. It is however the least time consuming section with a high level of accuracy.
Class 11 and 12 CBSE syllabus forms the basis of questions in JEE Main. Candidates should study from the NCERT textbooks to clear all the basic concepts. The chapter wise syllabus for Chemistry is given below:
|Names of Chapters|
|General Organic Chemistry||Surface chemistry|
|Alcohol Phenol Ether||Atomic Structure|
|Redox reactions||Gaseous State|
|Chemical Bonding||Transition Elements|
|P-block elements||Nuclear Chemistry|
|S-block elements||Chemical Kinetics|
|Aldehyde & Ketones||Mole Concepts|
|Solutions||Amines and Diazonium Salts|
|Chemical Thermodynamics||Alkanes, Alkenes &Alkynes|
|Chemical and Ionic Equilibrium||Electrochemistry|
|Purification and Characterization of Organic Compounds||Principles related to Practical Chemistry|
JEE Main (Chemistry) as questions asked are straight forward and direct. The difficulty level is low compared to Physics and Mathematics. It requires the least amount of time and time saved in this section can be utilized in the other two. It is independent from the other 2 subjects (except for Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry) unlike Physics and Mathematics which are quite co-dependent.
Following are some preparation tips for Chemistry that can go a long way in improving your JEE Main score:
Physical Chemistry- This is the easiest part among the 3. Read NCERT textbook thoroughly. You should first go through the theory of all chapters and then start attempting questions. The questions asked often involve direct application of formulae. You can think of which formulae to use only if your basic concepts are clear.
Learn all the tables and important points given in these chapters. Memorize all the formulae of Chemical Bonding, Equilibrium, Kinetics, and Radioactivity. Keep an analytical and stoichiometric approach while attempting the questions.
Inorganic Chemistry- The NCERT textbook alone will suffice for questions on these chapters. Familiarize yourself with each and every line of the textbook for Inorganic chemistry. Questions are picked up from the textbook without any twists. Make use of charts and mind maps for qualitative analysis. Give extra attention to the chapters d & f block and Co-ordination compounds.
Organic Chemistry- The key here lies in mastering the General Organic Chemistry (G.O.C) part. You should understand the logic behind various mechanisms. If you are thorough with the mechanisms, reactions are a piece of cake. Learn common names of substances and also do not neglect the last few chapters (Biomolecules, Polymers and Chemistry in Everyday life). Use good reference books like OP Tandon and Morrison & Boyd.
Aspirants must refer to certain books to up their game and have an edge over the other. They must choose these reference books wisely and use them only after studying from NCERT books.
Pick a few books and master them (remember less is more). Some good reference books for JEE Main Chemistry are:
|Section||Name of book||Author’s/ Publisher’s name|
|Physical Chemistry||Wiley’s Physical Chemistry for JEE (Main & Advanced)||Wiley|
|Modern Approach to Chemical Calculations||R C Mukherjee|
|University Chemistry||Bruce M Mahan and Rollie J. Meyers|
|Inorganic Chemistry||Concise Inorganic Chemistry||J D Lee|
|Textbook of Inorganic Chemistry for Competitions (JEE Main & Advanced )||O P Tandon|
|Organic Chemistry||Organic Chemistry||Morrison & Boyd|
|Organic Chemistry||O P Tandon|
|A Guidebook to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry||Peter Sykes|
JEE Main Chemistry can help students in outdoing each other and increase their chances of getting into their dream college. It is essential that they follow the right syllabus. Topics related to Practical Chemistry are not given in the NCERT books but form a part of the syllabus.
Aspirants should prepare well for the section. Do not utilize more than 45 minutes for this section. Try to make intelligent guesses by eliminating the least probable answers. Solve mock tests and previous years’ papers frequently.